Thin film characterization is the process of analyzing and evaluating the properties of thin films, which are typically a few nanometers to a few micrometers thick. This field aims to understand and measure parameters such as thickness, composition, crystal structure, morphology, optical properties, and electrical behavior. The most common methods used for thin film characterization include spectroscopic techniques such as ellipsometry and reflectometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrical measurements like sheet resistance and conductivity measurements. These techniques provide valuable insights into the structure, composition, and performance of thin films, enabling scientists and engineers to optimize their properties for various applications.

Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films. Ellipsometry measures the change of polarization upon reflection or transmission and compares it to a model.

It can be used to characterize composition, roughness, thickness (depth), crystalline nature, doping concentration, electrical conductivity and other material properties. It is very sensitive to the change in the optical response of incident radiation that interacts with the material being investigated.

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