ALD, PVD, Spin Coating

Atomic Layer Deposition (5 pcs)
In total, five reactors are available, four of them belongs to F-120 and they are termed as MC, M, F and DJ reactors. The last one is R-100 reactor from Picosun. In general, F-reactors are flow type reactors F-reactors are very versatile as compared to R-reactors as any sorts of reactants can be easily tried in F-reactor. R-reactor is more suitable for quality ALD solutions.
Dip Coating (1 pcs)

Dip coating is an industrial coating process which is used, for example, to manufacture bulk products such as coated fabrics and condoms and specialised coatings for example in the biomedical field. Dip coating is also commonly used in academic research, where many chemical and nano material engineering research projects use the dip coating technique to create thin-film coatings.

The earliest dip-coated products may have been candles. For flexible laminar substrates such as fabrics, dip coating may be performed as a continuous roll-to-roll process. For coating a 3D object, it may simply be inserted and removed from the bath of coating. For condom-making, a former is dipped into the coating. For some products, such as early methods of making candles, the process is repeated many times, allowing a series of thin films to bulk up to a relatively thick final object.

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PVD for Electrochemical Sensor Research (1 pcs)

Physical vapor deposition (PVD), sometimes (especially in single-crystal growth contexts) called physical vapor transport (PVT), describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings. PVD is characterized by a process in which the material goes from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then back to a thin film condensed phase. The most common PVD processes are sputtering and evaporation. PVD is used in the manufacture of items which require thin films for mechanical, optical, chemical or electronic functions. Examples include semiconductor devices such as thin film solar panels, aluminized PET film for food packaging and balloons, and titanium nitride coated cutting tools for metalworking. Besides PVD tools for fabrication, special smaller tools (mainly for scientific purposes) have been developed. Currently this PVD device is dedicated to research of electrochemical thin films sensors.

Spin Coating (1 pcs)

Spin coating is a procedure used to deposit uniform thin films onto flat substrates. Usually a small amount of coating material is applied on the center of the substrate, which is either spinning at low speed or not spinning at all. The substrate is then rotated at speed up to 10,000 rpm to spread the coating material by centrifugal force. A machine used for spin coating is called a spin coater, or simply spinner.

Rotation is continued while the fluid spins off the edges of the substrate, until the desired thickness of the film is achieved. The applied solvent is usually volatile, and simultaneously evaporates. The higher the angular speed of spinning, the thinner the film. The thickness of the film also depends on the viscosity and concentration of the solution, and the solvent. Pioneering theoretical analysis of spin coating was undertaken by Emslie et al.,and has been extended by many subsequent authors (including Wilson et al., who studied the rate of spreading in spin coating; and Danglad-Flores et al., who found a universal description to predict the deposited film thickness).

Spin coating is widely used in microfabrication of functional oxide layers on glass or single crystal substrates using sol-gel precursors, where it can be used to create uniform thin films with nanoscale thicknesses. It is used intensively in photolithography, to deposit layers of photoresist about 1 micrometre thick. Photoresist is typically spun at 20 to 80 revolutions per second for 30 to 60 seconds. It is also widely used for the fabrication of planar photonic structures made of polymers.

One advantage to spin coating thin films is the uniformity of the film thickness. Owing to self-leveling, thicknesses do not vary more than 1%. However, spin coating thicker films of polymers and photoresists can result in relatively large edge beads whose planarization has physical limits.